Gluten-free diet is the only treatment of celiac disease and gluten-free products are of great importance in terms of strict adherence to this diet and complete withdrawal of gluten.
If you do not have celiac disease but are trying to avoid gluten consumption and would like to have a piece of wheat bread once in a while. Check out this idea.
Homemade sourdough bread using homemade KEFIR fermentation!
According to studies, homemade sourdough breads may contain a lot less gluten/gliadin depending on fermentation time and fermentation methods. Fermentation may also reduce phytate content of whole wheat flour, and improve nutrient content.
I do not have celiac disease and although I try to avoid eating gluten several times a week, once in a while I want to enjoy a piece of homemade bread. I have noticed that my homemade sourdough bread when made the right way does not make my stomach feel heavy and does not cause me discomfort.
Please do not trust me, research about this subject and make your own conclusions!!!
For more information on fermentation and gluten please check these articles!
1. Katina, K et al, Potential of sourdough for healthier cereal products, Trend Food Sci Technol, 2005; 16: 104–112.
2. Gänzle, MG et al, Proteolysis in sourdough fermentations: mechanisms and potential for improved bread quality, Trend Food Sci Technol, 2008; 19: 513-52.
3. Di Cagno, R et al, Sourdough bread made from wheat and non-toxic flours and started with selected lactobacilli is tolerated in coeliac sprue patients, Appl Environ Microbiol, 2004; 70(2): 1088-96.
4. Rizzello, CG et al, Highly efficient gluten degradation by lactobacilli and fungal proteases during food processing: new perspectives for celiac disease, Appl Environ Microbiol, 2007; 73(14): 4499-507.
5. Di Cagno, R et al, Use of selected sourdough strains of Lactobacillus for removing gluten and enhancing the nutritional properties of gluten-free bread, J Food Prot, 2008; 71(7): 1491-5.
6. Di Cagno, R et al, Proteolysis by sourdough lactic acid bacteria: effects on wheat flour protein fractions and gliadin peptides involved in human cereal intolerance, Appl Environ Microbiol, 2002; 68(2): 623-33.
7. Coda,R et al, Selected Lactic Acid Bacteria Synthesize Antioxidant Peptides during Sourdough Fermentation of Cereal Flours, App Environ Microbiol, 2012; 78(4): 1087–1096.
8. Rizzello, CG et al, Synthesis of the Cancer Preventive Peptide Lunasin by Lactic Acid Bacteria During Sourdough Fermentation, Nutri Cancer, 2012; 64: 1, 111-120
9. Nonaka, Y et al, Antiallergic effects of Lactobacillus pentosus strain S-PT84 mediated by modulation of Th1/Th2 immunobalance and induction of IL-10 production, Int Arch Allergy Immunol, 2008; 145(3): 249-57.
10. Poutanen K et al, Sourdough and cereal fermentation in a nutritional perspective, Food Microbiol, 2009; 26: 693–699.
11. Van Baarlen, P et al, Differential NF-kB pathways induction by Lactobacillus plantarum in the duodenum of healthy humans correlating with immune tolerance, Proc Natl Assoc Sci, 2009; 106: 2371–2376.
12. Leenhardt, F et al, Moderate decrease of pH by sourdough fermentation is sufficient to reduce phytate content of whole wheat flour through endogenous phytase activity, J Agric Food Chem, 2005; 53: 98-102.
13. Lopez, H W et al, Making bread with sourdough improves mineral bioavailability from reconstituted whole wheat flour in rats, Nutrition, 2003; 19(6): 524-530.
14. Fredriksson, H et al, Fermentation Reduces Free Asparagine in Dough and Acrylamide Content in Bread, Cereal Chem, 2004; 81(5): 650-653.
15. Östman, E.M. et al, On the Effect of Lactic Acid on Blood Glucose and Insulin Responses to Cereal Products: Mechanistic Studies in Healthy Subjects and In Vitro. J Cereal Science, 2002; 36: 339-46.